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File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another through a network such as the Internet. FTP is a file transfer protocol for exchanging and manipulating files over a TCP computer network. A FTP client may connect to a FTP server to manipulate files on that server. FTP runs exclusively over TCP. It defaults to listen on port 21 for incoming connections from FTP clients.
A connection to this port from the FTP Client forms the control stream on which commands are passed to the FTP server from the FTP client and on occasion from the FTP client to the FTP server. FTP uses out-of-band control, which means it uses a separate connection for control and data. Thus, for the actual file transfer to take place, a different connection is required which is called the data stream.
Depending on the transfer mode, the process of setting up the data stream is different. Port 21 for control (or program), port 20 for data.
Other protocols and interfaces